Transforming Energy Lecture: Next-Generation Technologies for Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an essential technology for stabilizing atmospheric CO2 levels, yet the cost of electricity (COE) from first generation technologies is high. The need for CCS will first be demonstrated in this talk and then a next-generation, lower cost technology for Carbon Capture will be introduced.
The technology, the Staged, Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, incorporates pressurized combustion and fuel staging to maximize efficiency and minimize the COE. Pressurization allows the latent heat of the water vapor in the flue gas to be captured and utilized in the steam cycle. Fuel staging allows for increased control of the temperature and heat transfer during combustion, and eliminates the need for other temperature control processes. The fuel staging continues until nearly all of the oxygen is consumed. Despite very high flame temperatures, wall heat flux is controlled by radiative trapping.
A techno-economic assessment indicates that the process is technologically feasible, the efficiency is high, and the cost of electricity with 90% carbon capture can be held within 35% of the existing COE without carbon capture. Systems modelling, experiments and CFD simulations of the combustion process will be presented.
Richard Axelbaum is the Jens Professor of Environmental Science in the Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. He is the Director of the Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization at Washington University and past chairman and chief scientific advisor for AP Materials, Inc., a start-up company that specialized in flame synthesis of nanopowders. He studies combustion phenomena ranging from oxy-coal combustion of coal to synthesis of nano-structured materials for electric vehicles to hydrogen fire safety. His research on fossil fuel combustion focuses on pollutant formation and pollutant reduction with novel approaches. He is PI of a combustion experiment that will soon be conducted on the International Space Station.